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J Oral Implantol. 2015 Jun;41(3):240-50. doi: 10.1563/AAID-JOI-D-13-00053. Epub 2013 Jul 5.

In Vivo Behavior of a Custom-Made 3D Synthetic Bone Substitute in Sinus Augmentation Procedures in Sheep.

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1  Department of Surgical and Morphological Science, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.
2  Stem TeCh group, Chieti, Italy.
3  Department of Comparative Biomedical Science, University of Teramo, Italy.
4  Department of Technologies and Health, ISS, Rome, Italy.
5  Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University "G. d'Annunzio," Chieti, Italy.


In this study, the in vivo behavior of a custom-made three-dimensional (3D) synthetic bone substitute was evaluated when used as scaffold for sinus augmentation procedures in an animal model. The scaffold was a calcium phosphate ceramic fabricated by the direct rapid prototyping technique, dispense-plotting. The geometrical and chemical properties of the scaffold were first analyzed through light and electron scanning microscopes, helium picnometer, and semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction measurements. Then, 6 sheep underwent monolateral sinus augmentation with the fabricated scaffolds. The animals were euthanized after healing periods of 45 and 90 days, and block sections including the grafted area were obtained. Bone samples were subjected to micro computerized tomography, morphological and histomorphometric analyses. A complete integration of the scaffold was reported, with abundant deposition of newly formed bone tissue within the biomaterial pores. Moreover, initial foci of bone remodeling were mainly localized at the periphery of the implanted area after 45 days, while continuous bridges of mature lamellar bone were recorded in 90-day specimens. This evidence supports the hypothesis that bone regeneration proceeds from the periphery to the center of the sinus cavity. These results showed how a technique allowing control of porosity, pore design, and external shape of a ceramic bone substitute may be valuable for producing synthetic bone grafts with good clinical performances.


X-ray microtomography; bone grafting; hydroxyapatites; scaffolds; sinus floor augmentation; tricalcium phosphate

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