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Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Apr;43(4):426-31. doi: 10.1002/uog.12549. Epub 2014 Mar 12.

Fetal venous circulation in monochorionic twin pregnancies with placental insufficiency: prediction of acidemia at birth or intrauterine fetal death.

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1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To investigate fetal venous Doppler measurements in monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated by placental insufficiency and the relationship between fetal venous flow and acidemia at birth or intrauterine fetal death.

METHODS:

This was a prospective study of 18 monochorionic twin pregnancies with placental insufficiency. Inclusion criteria were monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy, abnormal umbilical artery (UA) Doppler indices, intact membranes and absence of fetal congenital abnormalities. Cases of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome were excluded. The following Doppler measurements were studied: UA pulsatility index (PI), ductus venosus PI, middle cerebral artery PI and peak systolic velocity, intra-abdominal umbilical vein (UV) time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMXV) and left portal vein (LPV) TAMXV. Doppler parameters were transformed into Z-scores (SD values from the mean) or multiples of the median according to normative references.

RESULTS:

UA pH < 7.20 occurred in nine (25.0%) neonates, pH < 7.15 in four (11.1%) and intrauterine death in four (11.1%) fetuses. The UV-TAMXV and LPV-TAMXV Z-scores were significantly lower in the group with pH < 7.20 or intrauterine fetal death (-1.79 vs -1.22, P = 0.006 and -2.26 vs -1.13, P = 0.04, respectively). In cases with pH < 7.15 or intrauterine fetal death, UV pulsations were more frequent (50.0% vs 10.7%, P = 0.03) and UV-TAMXV Z-score was significantly lower (-1.89 vs -1.26, P = 0.003). Mixed effects logistic regression analysis, accounting for the paired nature of the outcomes for the two twins in each pregnancy, demonstrated that the UV-TAMXV Z-score significantly predicted UA pH at birth < 7.20 or intrauterine fetal death. The Doppler parameter that independently predicted pH < 7.15 or intrauterine fetal death was presence of pulsation in the UV.

CONCLUSION:

UV Doppler parameters may predict acidemia at birth or intrauterine fetal death in monochorionic twins complicated by placental insufficiency.

KEYWORDS:

monochorionic twin; placental insufficiency; prediction; twin pregnancy; venous Doppler

PMID:
23828752
DOI:
10.1002/uog.12549
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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