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Cell Death Dis. 2013 Jul 4;4:e710. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2013.234.

ifn-γ-dependent secretion of IL-10 from Th1 cells and microglia/macrophages contributes to functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

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Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.


Transfer of type-1 helper T-conditioned (Th1-conditioned) cells promotes functional recovery with enhanced axonal remodeling after spinal cord injury (SCI). This study explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of pro-inflammatory Th1-conditioned cells after SCI. The effect of Th1-conditioned cells from interferon-γ (ifn-γ) knockout mice (ifn-γ(-/-) Th1 cells) on the recovery after SCI was reduced. Transfer of Th1-conditioned cells led to the activation of microglia (MG) and macrophages (MΦs), with interleukin 10 (IL-10) upregulation. This upregulation of IL-10 was reduced when ifn-γ(-/-) Th1 cells were transferred. Intrathecal neutralization of IL-10 in the spinal cord attenuated the effects of Th1-conditioned cells. Further, IL-10 is robustly secreted from Th1-conditioned cells in an ifn-γ-dependent manner. Th1-conditioned cells from interleukin 10 knockout (il-10(-/-)) mice had no effects on recovery from SCI. These findings demonstrate that ifn-γ-dependent secretion of IL-10 from Th1 cells, as well as native MG/MΦs, is required for the promotion of motor recovery after SCI.

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