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Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013 Sep;17(9):1206-11. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.12.0833. Epub 2013 Jul 3.

Outcomes of integrated treatment for tuberculosis and HIV in children at the primary health care level.

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Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.



Little is known about the integration of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment in pediatric populations.


Prospective cohort of 31 HIV-infected children aged 3-18 years initiating anti-tuberculosis treatment at five primary health care (PHC) clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, to describe survival, clinical and immunological outcomes of nurse-centered integrated TB-HIV treatment.


Almost all of the children (87.1%) were diagnosed with HIV during TB diagnosis. Most (87.0%) were successfully treated for TB. Two (6.5%) died during anti-tuberculosis treatment; both presented with low CD4 counts (36 and 59 cells/mm(3) compared to a median of 228 cells/mm(3) in the entire cohort). Most (74.2%) initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) during anti-tuberculosis treatment. Overall, a median CD4 count increase of 106 cells/mm(3) was observed (P = 0.014), an increase of 113 cells/mm(3) among children on ART and of 71.5 cells/mm(3) in those not on ART (P = 0.78). Median body mass index increase during anti-tuberculosis treatment was 2.1 kg/m(2) overall (P = 0.002), 2.2 kg/m(2) among children on ART and 0.72 kg/m(2) in those not on ART (P = 0.08).


Integrated, nurse-centered, pediatric TB-HIV treatment at the PHC level in highly resource-limited settings is feasible and effective in achieving successful outcomes, including high ART uptake, low mortality, and immunological and clinical improvement.

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