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Gene. 2013 Sep 15;527(1):311-5. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.06.031. Epub 2013 Jul 1.

Are glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTT1) associated with primary open angle glaucoma? A meta-analysis.

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Department of Ophthalmology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University, PR China.



Glutathione S-transferase (GST) variants have been considered as risk factors for the pathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). However, the results have been inconsistent. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes and the risk for POAG.


Published literature from PubMed and EMBASE databases was retrieved. All studies evaluating the association between GSTM1/GSTT1 variants and POAG were included. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects model.


14 studies (1711 POAG cases and 1537 controls) were included in the meta-analysis of GSTM1 genotypes and 10 studies (1306 POAG cases and 1114 controls) were included in the meta-analysis of GSTT1 genotypes. The overall result showed that the association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes and risk for POAG was not statistically significant (GSTM1: OR=1.19, 95% CI=0.82-1.73, p=0.361; GSTT1: OR=1.26, 95% CI=0.77-2.06, p=0.365). The results by ethnicity showed that the association between the GSTM1 null genotype and risk for POAG is statistically significant in East Asians (OR=1.41, 95% CI=1.04-1.90, p=0.026), but not in Caucasians (OR=1.13, 95% CI=0.69-1.84, p=0.638) and Latin-American (OR=1.09, 95% CI=0.62-1.92, p=0.767). In addition, there was no significant association of GSTT1 null genotype with risk for POAG in either ethnic population.


The present meta-analysis suggested that there might be a significant association of GSTM1 null genotype with POAG risk in East Asians.


CI; GST; GSTM1; GSTT1; OR; POAG; Primary open-angle glaucoma; Variant; confidence interval; glutathione S-transferase; odds ratio; primary open angle glaucoma

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