Send to

Choose Destination
J Nutr. 2013 Sep;143(9):1391-8. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.175323. Epub 2013 Jul 3.

Very high fructose intake increases serum LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol: a meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials.

Author information

State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Heart Failure Center, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.


Fructose is widely used as a sweetener in the production of many foods, yet the relation between fructose intake and cholesterol remains uncertain. In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of human, controlled, feeding trials involving isocaloric fructose exchange for other carbohydrates to quantify the effects of fructose on serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) in adult humans. Weighted mean differences were calculated to determine changes from baseline cholesterol concentrations by means of generic, inverse variance, random-effect models. The Heyland Methodological Quality was used to assess the quality of the study. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression were conducted to explore the possible influences of study characteristics. Twenty-four trials (with a total of 474 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. In an overall pooled estimate, it was shown that fructose exerted no effect on HDL-C. Meta-regression analysis indicated that fructose dose was positively correlated with the effect sizes of TC and LDL-C. Subgroup analyses showed that isocaloric fructose exchange for carbohydrates increased TC by 13.0 mg/dL [(95% CI: 4.7, 21.3); P = 0.002] and LDL-C by 11.6 mg/dL [(95% CI: 4.4, 18.9); P = 0.002] at >100 g fructose/d. However, no effect was shown on TC or LDL-C when the fructose intake was ≤100 g/d. In conclusion, it was shown that very high fructose intake (>100 g/d) increases serum LDL-C and TC concentrations. Larger, longer, and higher-quality human, controlled, feeding trials are needed to confirm these results.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center