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J Virol. 2013 Sep;87(17):9754-67. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01032-13. Epub 2013 Jul 3.

Alphacoronavirus protein 7 modulates host innate immune response.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, CNB-CSIC, Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Abstract

Innate immune response is the first line of antiviral defense resulting, in most cases, in pathogen clearance with minimal clinical consequences. Viruses have developed diverse strategies to subvert host defense mechanisms and increase their survival. In the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) as a model, we previously reported that accessory gene 7 counteracts the host antiviral response by associating with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c). In the present work, the effect of the absence of gene 7 on the host cell, during infection, was further analyzed by transcriptomic analysis. The pattern of gene expression of cells infected with a recombinant mutant TGEV, lacking gene 7 expression (rTGEV-Δ7), was compared to that of cells infected with the parental virus (rTGEV-wt). Genes involved in the immune response, the interferon response, and inflammation were upregulated during TGEV infection in the absence of gene 7. An exacerbated innate immune response during infection with rTGEV-Δ7 virus was observed both in vitro and in vivo. An increase in macrophage recruitment and activation in lung tissues infected with rTGEV-Δ7 virus was observed compared to cells infected with the parental virus. In summary, the absence of protein 7 both in vitro and in vivo led to increased proinflammatory responses and acute tissue damage after infection. In a porcine animal model, which is immunologically similar to humans, we present a novel example of how viral proteins counteract host antiviral pathways to determine the infection outcome and pathogenesis.

PMID:
23824792
PMCID:
PMC3754097
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.01032-13
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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