Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Int J Cancer. 2014 Jan 15;134(2):411-25. doi: 10.1002/ijc.28354. Epub 2013 Jul 30.

Evaluation of a multiplex panel of immune-related markers in cervical secretions: a methodologic study.

Author information

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI/NIH/DHHS, Bethesda, MD.


Although persistent carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary for cervical carcinogenesis, the cofactors involved in HPV persistence and disease progression are poorly understood. Chronic cervical inflammation may increase risk, but few studies have measured immune markers (cytokines, chemokines and soluble receptors) in cervical secretions. We evaluated the performance of 74 multiplexed, bead-based immune markers in cervical secretions from three groups of women with biopsy evaluation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), (i) <CIN1, HPV-negative (n = 24), (ii) <CIN1, carcinogenic HPV-positive (n = 24) and (iii) CIN2/3, carcinogenic HPV-positive (n = 48), matched on time since last period and smoking status. We considered markers with >25% detectability and >80% interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) acceptable for epidemiologic studies. Within-batch coefficients of variation (CVs) of ≥25% indicated room for assay improvement. Secondarily, we explored associations between marker levels and CIN/HPV status adjusted for matching variables, assay batch, age and number of sexual partners. Sixty-two markers (84%) had >25% detectability and ICCs > 80%. Of those, 53 (85%) had CVs < 25%. Using these preliminary data, we found that HPV positivity was associated with increased eotaxin-1 [odds ratio (OR): 15.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26-200.00] and G-CSF (OR: 12.99, 95% CI: 1.10-142.86) among CIN-negative women. There was suggestive evidence that higher chemoattractant marker levels were associated with CIN2/3 (e.g., MIP-1delta, OR: 4.48, 95% CI: 0.87-23.04 versus <CIN1/HPV-positive). More than 70% of markers were reliably measured. This assay may be used to evaluate associations of immune-related markers with CIN and HPV status.


cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; cervical secretions; human papillomavirus; immunology

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center