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Clin Microbiol Rev. 2013 Jul;26(3):505-25. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00005-13.

Recent advances in our understanding of the environmental, epidemiological, immunological, and clinical dimensions of coccidioidomycosis.

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Southern Arizona Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Tucson, Arizona, USA.


Coccidioidomycosis is the endemic mycosis caused by the fungal pathogens Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. This review is a summary of the recent advances that have been made in the understanding of this pathogen, including its mycology, genetics, and niche in the environment. Updates on the epidemiology of the organism emphasize that it is a continuing, significant problem in areas of endemicity. For a variety of reasons, the number of reported coccidioidal infections has increased dramatically over the past decade. While continual improvements in the fields of organ transplantation and management of autoimmune disorders and patients with HIV have led to dilemmas with concurrent infection with coccidioidomycosis, they have also led to advances in the understanding of the human immune response to infection. There have been some advances in therapeutics with the increased use of newer azoles. Lastly, there is an overview of the ongoing search for a preventative vaccine.

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