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Parasitol Res. 2013 Sep;112(9):3283-8. doi: 10.1007/s00436-013-3507-z. Epub 2013 Jul 3.

Alteration in Bacillus thuringiensis toxicity by curing gut flora: novel approach for mosquito resistance management.

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  • 1School of Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Post Box 80, Jalgaon, 425001, Maharashtra, India.


Mosquitoes are known for acquiring resistance against insecticides in many ways, namely target side mutation, enzyme modification, sequestration, quick elimination, etc. But, the role of microflora present in abundance in the larval midgut is less explored with respect to their role in insecticide resistance. During the course of their development, mosquitoes are continuously exposed to microbes and have naturally acquired midgut microbial flora. This midgut flora can modulate the mosquito's susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) infection by degrading toxic Bt protein forms through an unknown mechanism. In this study, we show that microbe-free aseptic mosquito larvae displayed an increased susceptibility to Bt toxicity compared to larvae harboring natural microbial flora. Fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi were treated separately with penicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin (100 μg/ml), and mixtures of all three antibiotics and then analyzed for Bt toxicity. We have also examined the influence of the mosquito's midgut microbial flora under microaerophilic condition on the Bt protein degradation through plate, broth, TLC, and UV-vis spectrophotometric assay. A better understanding of the roles of microbiota in preventing Bt toxicity to mosquitoes could potentially lead to the development of new sustainable mosquito control strategies.

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