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J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2013;26(11-12):1067-75. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2013-0086.

Vitamin D status is associated with early markers of cardiovascular disease in prepubertal children.



The associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and related markers of early cardiovascular disease (CVD) are unclear in prepubertal children.


To investigate the association of 25(OH)D with markers of CVD. The hypothesis was that 25(OH)D would vary inversely with non-HDL-C.


A prospective cross-sectional study of children (n=45; 26 males, 19 females) of mean age 8.3 ± 2.5 years to investigate the relationships between 25(OH)D and glucose, insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and lipids. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL; overweight as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85 th but <95th percentile; and obesity as BMI >95th percentile.


Twenty subjects (44.4%) had BMI <85%, and 25 had BMI of ≥ 85%. Eleven participants (24.4%) had 25(OH)D of <20 ng/mL, and 10 (22.2%) had 25(OH)D of >30 ng/mL. Patients with 25(OH)D of <20 ng/mL had significantly elevated non-HDL-C (136.08 ± 44.66 vs. 109.88 ± 28.25, p=0.025), total cholesterol (TC)/HDL ratio (3.89 ± 1.20 vs. 3.21 ± 0.83, p=0.042), and triglycerides (TG) (117.09 ± 71.27 vs. 73.39 ± 46.53, p=0.024), while those with 25(OH)D of >30 ng/mL had significantly lower non-HDL-C, TC/HDL, TG, and LDL (82.40 ± 18.03 vs. 105.15 ± 28.38, p=0.006). Multivariate analysis showed significant inverse correlations between 25(OH)D and non-HDL cholesterol (β=-0.337, p=0.043), and TC/HDL ratio (β=-0.339, p=0.028), and LDL (β=-0.359, p=0.016), after adjusting for age, race, sex, BMI, and seasonality.


Vitamin D varied inversely with non-HDL, TC/HDL, and LDL. A 25(OH)D level of 30 ng/mL is associated with optimal cardioprotection in children.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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