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Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2013 Jul;24(4):844-52.

Clinical analysis of hypertension in children: an urban Indian study.

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Department of Endocrinology, Medwin Hospital, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.


Hypertension in children, although an uncommon entity, is associated with end-organ damage. We tried to study the clinical profile of hypertension in children presented to our hospital. The medical records from January 1990 to December 2010 of all children aged 18 years and younger with hypertension were studied. The patients were divided into four age groups (infants, pre-school age, school age and adolescents) Presenting symptoms and other clinical parameters were thoroughly evaluated. The results were compared with previous studies on hypertension in children. A total of 135 patients were selected (male:female 103:32), with mean age of 0.4 ± 2.1 years (range: six months to 17 years). The most common age group affected was the adolescents group (42.9%). The most common clinical feature at presentation was dizziness (30.3%), followed by headache and chest discomfort (22.9%). Transient hypertension was detected in 34 patients (25.2%), and was most common in the adolescent age group, whereas sustained hypertension was noticed in 101 patients (74.8%) and was the most common in the school age group (36/45, 80%). Forty-two patients (31.1%) presented with hypertensive crisis. Nine patients were considered to have essential hypertension. The chief causes included chronic glomerulonephritis in 56 (41.5%), endocrine disorders in 21 (15.5%), obstructive uropathy in 16 (11.8%), reflux nephropathy in 12 (8.8%) and renovascular disease in 5 (3.7%). Takayasu's disease was the most common cause of renovascular hypertension. Coarctation of aorta was the most common cause of hypertension in infancy, being present in 40% of the cases. Hypertension in children may be easily underestimated but is a potentially life-threatening problem. Most of them are asymptomatic and a large chunk has an underlying etiology. Primary care clinicians should promptly identify patients with hypertension and treat them immediately and appropriately to prevent damage to the cardiovascular organs.

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