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Matern Child Health J. 2014 May;18(4):950-9. doi: 10.1007/s10995-013-1323-9.

Does it really matter where women live? A multilevel analysis of the determinants of postnatal care in Nigeria.

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Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria,


Although postnatal care is one of the major interventions recommended for the reduction of maternal and newborn deaths worldwide, almost two-third (56 %) of women in Nigeria do not receive postnatal care. Attempts to explain this situation have focused on individual and household level factors, but the role of community characteristics has received less attention.This study examines community factors associated with the receipt of postnatal care in Nigeria and the moderating effects of community factors on the association between individual factors and postnatal care. Data was drawn from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, and a sample of 17,846 women aged 15-49 years was selected. We employed a multilevel logistic regression analysis to identify community factors associated with postnatal care. Our findings showed that significant variations in receiving postnatal care exist across communities. Specifically, Nigerian women's likelihood of receiving postnatal care is a function of where they reside. Living in communities with a high proportion of educated women (OR = 2.04; 95 % CI = 1.32-3.16; p < 0.001) and a high proportion of those who have had a health facility delivery (OR = 17.86; 95 % CI = 8.34-38.24; p < 0.001) was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of receiving postnatal care. Community women's education moderated the association between ethnic origin and postnatal care. Community variance in postnatal care was significant (τ = 10.352, p = 0.001). Community interventions aimed at improving postnatal care should take into account the community context in which women live. To close the gap in community variations in postnatal care, secondary and higher education for women, and health facility delivery should be increased in disadvantaged communities.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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