Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Minerva Anestesiol. 2013 Dec;79(12):1381-8.

Ultrasound-guided single shot caudal block anesthesia reduces postoperative urinary catheter-induced discomfort.



Urinary catheter-induced discomfort during the postoperative period can be distressing, and sometimes results in severe restlessness and agitation, especially in middle-aged and elderly male patients. Recent advances in ultrasound technology have increased the consistency, safety, and ease of a caudal block even in older patients. We speculated that an ultrasound-guided caudal block would be reliable and safe as treatment for such postoperative discomfort.


Adult male patients (ASA I-II) undergoing cervical laminoplasty were allocated to either the caudal block (CB, N.=24) or non-block (NB, N.=24) group. Following anesthesia induction, urinary catheterization was performed using a 16 French Foley catheter. Thereafter, an ultrasound-guided caudal block was performed with 8 ml of 0.3% ropivacaine and 100 µg of fentanyl for patients in group CB, while group NB did not receive a caudal block. We assessed urinary catheter-induced discomfort as mild, moderate, or severe at 0, 2, 6, 10, and 18 hours after surgery, and compared the incidence and severity of discomfort between the groups using a randomized double-blind design.


All caudal blocks were successfully performed with 1 or 2 needle insertions. The incidence of urinary catheter-induced discomfort was significantly reduced in group CB as compared to NB at 0, 2, and 6 hours, while severity was also reduced at 0 and 2 hours. No patient required re-catheterization due to urinary retention after catheter removal. There were no other complications related to the caudal block.


Preoperative ultrasound-guided single shot caudal block anesthesia safely reduced postoperative urinary catheter-induced discomfort in our male patients.

Comment in

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Minerva Medica
    Loading ...
    Support Center