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Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2013 Sep;111(3):715-34. doi: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2013.05.026. Epub 2013 Jun 27.

Solving delay differential equations in S-ADAPT by method of steps.

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ICON Development Solutions, Hanover, MD 21076, USA.


S-ADAPT is a version of the ADAPT program that contains additional simulation and optimization abilities such as parametric population analysis. S-ADAPT utilizes LSODA to solve ordinary differential equations (ODEs), an algorithm designed for large dimension non-stiff and stiff problems. However, S-ADAPT does not have a solver for delay differential equations (DDEs). Our objective was to implement in S-ADAPT a DDE solver using the methods of steps. The method of steps allows one to solve virtually any DDE system by transforming it to an ODE system. The solver was validated for scalar linear DDEs with one delay and bolus and infusion inputs for which explicit analytic solutions were derived. Solutions of nonlinear DDE problems coded in S-ADAPT were validated by comparing them with ones obtained by the MATLAB DDE solver dde23. The estimation of parameters was tested on the MATLB simulated population pharmacodynamics data. The comparison of S-ADAPT generated solutions for DDE problems with the explicit solutions as well as MATLAB produced solutions which agreed to at least 7 significant digits. The population parameter estimates from using importance sampling expectation-maximization in S-ADAPT agreed with ones used to generate the data.


Delay differential equations; Method of steps; Pharmacodynamics; Pharmacokinetics

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