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Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013 Sep;95:161-70. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.05.037. Epub 2013 Jun 28.

Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.

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Laboratory of Environment and Biotechnology, Department of Botany, Patna Science College, Patna University, Patna 800005, Bihar, India.


Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields.


(Standard error); APX; Antioxidant enzymes; Biomass; CAT; Chl; Chlorophyll; Chromium toxicity; DHAR; DIP; DOP; DW; EDTA; FW; GR; MDA; MDHAR; Monodehydroascorbate reductase; PIP; POD; POP; Particulate inorganic phosphorus; Particulate organic phosphorus; Peroxidase; Phosphorus; ROS; Raphanus sativus L; Reactive oxygen species; SE; SOD; Superoxide dismutase; UV–vis; Ultra violet–visible; ascorbate peroxidase; catalase; chlorophyll; dehydroascorbate reductase; dissolved inorganic phosphorus; dissolved organic phosphorus; dry weight; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; fresh weight; glutathione reductase; malondialdehyde

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