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Eur J Cancer. 2013 Sep;49(14):3010-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2013.05.019. Epub 2013 Jun 26.

Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms: susceptibility and outcomes in muscle invasive bladder cancer patients.

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Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, South Korea.



We investigated whether genetic polymorphisms in the glutathione S transferase mu (GSTM1) and theta (GSTT1) genes modulated risk, disease progression and survival in primary muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC).


GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were analysed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using blood genomic DNA in 110 MIBC patients and 220 gender- and age-matched healthy controls. The influence of the genetic polymorphisms on patient survival was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox Proportional Hazard models. We also evaluated whether cigarette smoking and treatment modality modified the association between genotype and prognosis.


GSTM1-null individuals exhibited increased risk for MIBC and an association with cigarette smoking. GSTT1-null subjects showed significant disease progression and cancer-specific death. In the combined analysis, GSTT1-null genotype was an independent risk factor for disease progression and cancer specific death regardless of GSTM1 genotype. Significant differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were seen based on GSTT1 genotype. The survival impact of the GSTT1 genotype was only valid for smokers. The GSTT1-null genotype was an independent prognostic factor for shorter PFS in patients who received chemotherapy and those who did not undergo radical cystectomy. By multivariate Cox regression analysis, GSTT1-null genotype was a predictive factor for disease progression and cancer specific survival regardless of treatment modality.


The GSTM1-null genotype plays an important role in genetic susceptibility to MIBC and the GSTT1-null genotype is associated with disease progression and shorter survival in MIBC.


Bladder cancer; Epidemiology; GSTT1; Glutathione S-transferase; Polymorphism; Prognosis

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