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Dent Clin North Am. 2013 Jul;57(3):465-79. doi: 10.1016/j.cden.2013.04.006.

Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of temporomandibular disorders.

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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103, USA.


Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a multifactorial disease process caused by muscle hyperfunction or parafunction, traumatic injuries, hormonal influences, and articular changes. Symptoms of TMD include decreased mandibular range of motion, muscle and joint pain, joint crepitus, and functional limitation or deviation of jaw opening. Only after failure of noninvasive options should more invasive and nonreversible treatments be initiated. Treatment can be divided into noninvasive, minimally invasive, and invasive options. Temporomandibular joint replacement is reserved for severely damaged joints with end-stage disease that has failed all other more conservative treatment modalities.

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