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Ultrason Sonochem. 2014 Jan;21(1):98-103. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2013.06.004. Epub 2013 Jun 15.

Optimization of the ultrasound-assisted synthesis of lutein disuccinate using uniform design.

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Institute of Farm Product Processing, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China; College of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China. Electronic address:


The ultrasound-assisted synthesis of lutein disuccinate from all-trans lutein (AL) and succinic anhydride (SA) was investigated in this study. Triethylamine was used as the catalyst. Based on the single-factor experiments, a 7-level-3-factor uniform design and response surface analysis were further employed to evaluate the effects of the selected variables including molar ratio of SA/AL, reaction time and ultrasonic power on the yield of lutein disuccinate. The results indicated that the data were adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model; the molar ratio of SA/AL significantly affected the synthesis of lutein disuccinate, whereas reaction time and ultrasonic power did not. Based on ridge max analysis, the optimum condition for lutein disuccinate synthesis was predicted to be the molar ratio of SA/AL 265.3:1, ultrasonic power 300 W and reaction time 131.6 min with the lutein disuccinate yield of 80.53±0.18%, which give a 43.8% increase compared with the traditional method, and also significantly shorten the reaction time.


LC–MS analysis; Lutein disuccinate; NMR spectroscopy; Ultrasound-assisted synthesis; Uniform design

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