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Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2013 Jul;24(3):349-59. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2013 May 31.

Intracerebral hemorrhage: new challenges and steps forward.

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  • 1Cerebrovascular Center, S80, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.


Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. With the aging population, increased use of anticoagulants, and changing racial and ethnic landscape of the United States, the incidence of ICH will increase over the next decade. Improvements in preventative strategies to treat hypertension and atrial fibrillation are necessary to change the trajectory of this increase. Advances in the understanding of ICH at the vascular and molecular level may pave the way to new treatment options. This article discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and current treatment options for patients with ICH. Differences in outcome and treatment between patients taking and not taking anticoagulant therapies are considered.

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