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FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2013 Sep;346(1):1-10. doi: 10.1111/1574-6968.12204. Epub 2013 Jul 17.

Asymptomatic bacteriuria: prevalence rates of causal microorganisms, etiology of infection in different patient populations, and recent advances in molecular detection.

Author information

1
School of Medical Sciences, Centre for Medicine and Oral Health, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia.

Abstract

Bacteriuria, or the presence of bacteria in urine, is associated with both asymptomatic and symptomatic urinary tract infection and underpins much of the dynamic of microbial colonization of the urinary tract. The prevalence of bacteriuria in dissimilar patient groups such as healthy adults, institutionalized elderly, pregnant women, and immune-compromised patients varies widely. In addition, assessing the importance of 'significant bacteriuria' in infected individuals represents a diagnostic challenge, partly due to various causal microorganisms, and requires careful consideration of the distinct etiologies of bacteriuria in different populations and circumstances. Recent molecular discoveries have revealed how some bacterial traits can enable organisms to grow in human urine, which, as a fitness adaptation, is likely to influence the progression of bacteriuria in some individuals. In this review, we comprehensively analyze currently available data on the prevalence of causal organisms with a focus on asymptomatic bacteriuria in dissimilar populations. We evaluate recent advances in the molecular detection of bacteriuria from a diagnostic viewpoint and briefly discuss the potential benefits and some of the challenges of these approaches. Overall, this review provides an update on the comparative prevalence and etiology of bacteriuria from both microbiological and clinical perspectives.

KEYWORDS:

Escherichia coli; asymptomatic bacteriuria; bacteriuria; urinalysis; urinary tract infection; urine

PMID:
23808987
DOI:
10.1111/1574-6968.12204
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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