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Ann Rev Mar Sci. 2014;6:249-77. doi: 10.1146/annurev-marine-010213-135029. Epub 2013 Jun 27.

Climate change influences on marine infectious diseases: implications for management and society.

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1
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853; email: cab433@cornell.edu , cdh5@cornell.edu *

Abstract

Infectious diseases are common in marine environments, but the effects of a changing climate on marine pathogens are not well understood. Here we review current knowledge about how the climate drives host-pathogen interactions and infectious disease outbreaks. Climate-related impacts on marine diseases are being documented in corals, shellfish, finfish, and humans; these impacts are less clearly linked for other organisms. Oceans and people are inextricably linked, and marine diseases can both directly and indirectly affect human health, livelihoods, and well-being. We recommend an adaptive management approach to better increase the resilience of ocean systems vulnerable to marine diseases in a changing climate. Land-based management methods of quarantining, culling, and vaccinating are not successful in the ocean; therefore, forecasting conditions that lead to outbreaks and designing tools/approaches to influence these conditions may be the best way to manage marine disease.

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