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Indoor Air. 2014 Apr;24(2):199-212. doi: 10.1111/ina.12057. Epub 2013 Aug 2.

Controlled experiments measuring personal exposure to PM2.5 in close proximity to cigarette smoking.

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Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.


Few measurements of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in close proximity to a smoker are available. Recent health studies have demonstrated an association between acute (<2 h) exposures to high concentrations of SHS and increased risk of cardiovascular and respiratory disease. We performed 15 experiments inside naturally ventilated homes and 16 in outdoor locations, each with 2-4 non-smokers sitting near a cigarette smoker. The smoker's and non-smokers' real-time exposures to PM2.5 from SHS were measured by using TSI SidePak monitors to sample their breathing zones. In 87% of the residential indoor experiments, the smoker received the highest average exposure to SHS, with PM2.5 concentrations ranging from 50-630 μg/m(3) . During the active smoking period, individual non-smokers sitting within approximately 1 m of a smoker had average SHS exposures ranging from negligible up to >160 μg/m(3) of PM2.5 . The average incremental exposure of the non-smokers was higher indoors (42 μg/m(3) , n = 35) than outdoors (29 μg/m(3) , n = 47), but the overall indoor and outdoor frequency distributions were similar. The 10-s PM2.5 averages during the smoking periods showed great variability, with multiple high concentrations of short duration (microplumes) both indoors and outdoors.


Human exposure; Proximity effect; Real-time measurements; Secondhand smoke

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