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J Infect Public Health. 2013 Aug;6(4):307-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2013.02.003. Epub 2013 Apr 22.

Non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Yaounde: prevalence, determinants and the concordance of two screening criteria.

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Department of Internal Medicine and Subspecialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Cameroon.



To assess the prevalence and determinants of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) as well as the concordance of two screening criteria in a major center for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment in Yaounde, Cameroon.


In 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 889 adults (age > 18 years, 67.9% women) infected with HIV who were receiving chronic care at the Yaounde Jamot Hospital. Adherence was assessed via self-administered questionnaires using the Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA) index and the Center for Adherence Support Evaluation (CASE) index.


The prevalence of non-adherence to ART was 22.5% based on the CPCRA index and 34.9% based on the CASE index, with a low agreement between the two indexes [kappa = 0.37 (95% confidence interval 0.31-0.44)]. Independent determinants of CPCRA-diagnosed non-adherence were as follows: being a remunerated employee [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.61 (1.14-2.28)], Pentecostal Christianity [2.18 (1.25-3.80)], alcohol consumption [1.65 (1.16-2.34)] and non-adherence to cotrimoxazole prophylaxis [5.73 (3.92-8.38)]. The equivalents for CASE-diagnosed non-adherence were [1.59 (1.19-2.12)], [1.83 (1.36-2.47)], [1.70 (1.27-2.28)], respectively, in addition to association with changes to the ART regimen [1.61 (1.17-2.20)].


Non-adherence to ART remains high in this population. The careful evaluation of patients for the presence of determinants of non-adherence identified in this study may aid ART optimization.

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