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Semin Oncol. 2013 Jun;40(3):259-75. doi: 10.1053/j.seminoncol.2013.04.002.

Molecular diagnosis of prostate cancer: are we up to age?

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Department of Pathology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.


Prostate cancer (PCa), a highly heterogeneous disease, is the one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed countries. Historically used biomarkers such as prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and its precursor have not stood the challenge of sensitivity and specificity. At present, there is need to re-evaluate the approach to diagnose and monitor PCa. To this end, molecular markers that can accurately identify men with PCa at an early stage, and those who would benefit from early therapeutic intervention, are the need of the hour. There has been unprecedented progress in the development of new PCa biomarkers through advancements in proteomics, tissue DNA and protein/RNA microarray, identification of microRNA, isolation of circulating tumor cells, and tumor immunohistochemistry. This review will examine the current status of prostate cancer biomarkers with emphasis on emerging biomarkers by evaluating their diagnostic and prognostic potentials.

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