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Vaccine. 2013 Aug 20;31(37):3922-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.06.044. Epub 2013 Jun 24.

Cost-effectiveness of the prophylactic HPV vaccine: an application to the Netherlands taking non-cervical cancers and cross-protection into account.

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Unit of PharmacoEpidemiology & PharmacoEconomics (PE2), Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.


Despite an effective screening programme, 600-700 women are still diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Netherlands each year. In 2009 a prophylactic vaccine against HPV-type 16 and 18 was implemented in the national immunisation programme to decrease the incidence of cervical cancer. There is evidence that infections with several oncogenic HPV types other than the vaccine types 16 and 18 are also prevented by vaccination, also known as cross-protection. Besides cervical cancer, HPV can also cause cancers at other sites such as the oropharynx, vulva, vagina and the anus/anal area. In this study we estimated the maximum health and economic benefits of vaccinating 12-year old girls against infection with HPV, taking cross-protection and non-cervical cancers into account. In the base-case, we found an incremental cost ratio (ICER) of €5815 per quality adjusted life year (QALY). Robustness of this result was examined in sensitivity analysis. The ICER proved to be most sensitive to vaccine price, discounting rates, costs of cervical cancer and to variation in the disutility of cervical cancer.


Cost–effectiveness analysis; Cross-protection; HPV; Non-cervical cancers

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