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Adipocyte. 2013 Apr 1;2(2):74-9. doi: 10.4161/adip.23320.

Metabolic impact of sex chromosomes.

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1
Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles; CA USA.

Abstract

Obesity and associated metabolic diseases are sexually dimorphic. To provide better diagnosis and treatment for both sexes, it is of interest to identify the factors that underlie male/female differences in obesity. Traditionally, sexual dimorphism has been attributed to effects of gonadal hormones, which influence numerous metabolic processes. However, the XX/XY sex chromosome complement is an additional factor that may play a role. Recent data using the four core genotypes mouse model have revealed that sex chromosome complement-independently from gonadal sex-plays a role in adiposity, feeding behavior, fatty liver and glucose homeostasis. Potential mechanisms for the effects of sex chromosome complement include differential gene dosage from X chromosome genes that escape inactivation, and distinct genomic imprints on X chromosomes inherited from maternal or paternal parents. Here we review recent data in mice and humans concerning the potential impact of sex chromosome complement on obesity and metabolic disease.

KEYWORDS:

circadian rhythm; fatty liver; food intake; metabolic disease; obesity; sex differences

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