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World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2010 Jul;1(2):187-93. doi: 10.1177/2150135110372532.

Hard choices for high-risk patients with critical left ventricular outflow obstruction: contemporary comparison of hybrid versus surgical strategy.

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Nemours Cardiac Center and Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, Delaware.


Surgical management of high-risk newborns with critical left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) involves difficult decision making and complex procedures associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We sought to compare the outcomes of the hybrid and surgical strategies for the management of neonates with critical LVOTO considered at high risk in a contemporary nonrandomized cohort. This is a retrospective review of all patients undergoing management of critical LVOTO between January 2001 and December 2008. High-risk conditions included prematurity, low birth weight, and genetic or associated cardiac and noncardiac pathology. Analysis was performed based on intention to treat. Primary and secondary outcomes were operative and 6-month mortality. The cohort included 55 patients (21 hybrid and 34 surgical [31 Norwood, 3 biventricular repair]). The cohort had a median age of 4 (range, 1-62) days, mean weight of 2.7 ± 0.5 kg, and Aristotle comprehensive score of 18.6 ± 2.9. Low birth weight (P = .0007), prematurity (P = .004), and organ dysfunction (P = .04) were risk factors for operative death. Six-month mortality was associated with need for reintervention (P = .017) in the surgical group and history of organ dysfunction (P = .02) or aortic atresia (P = .03) in the hybrid group. Logistic regression identified low birth weight (P = .05; odds ratio [OR], 5.6 [0.9-34.6]), organ dysfunction (P = .05; OR, 4.7 [0.9-22.5]), and non-hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) diagnosis (P = .03; OR, 0.06 [0.005-0.93]) as predictors of mortality for the entire cohort. No differences in operative and 6-month mortality were detected between management strategies. Although initial surgical insult is lessened by the hybrid palliation, important interstage mortality and ongoing morbidity result in similar 6-month survival with either strategy. Patient-related factors have a larger influence on outcome than the management strategy chosen.


CHD; CHD Norwood; CHD univentricular heart; hypoplastic left heart syndrome; surgery

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