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J Comput Chem. 2013 Sep 5;34(23):2032-40. doi: 10.1002/jcc.23362. Epub 2013 Jun 26.

A polarizable ellipsoidal force field for halogen bonds.

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Key Lab of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, People's Republic China.


The anisotropic effects and short-range quantum effects are essential characters in the formation of halogen bonds. Since there are an array of applications of halogen bonds and much difficulty in modeling them in classical force fields, the current research reports solely the polarizable ellipsoidal force field (PEff) for halogen bonds. The anisotropic charge distribution was represented with the combination of a negative charged sphere and a positively charged ellipsoid. The polarization energy was incorporated by the induced dipole model. The resulting force field is "physically motivated," which includes separate, explicit terms to account for the electrostatic, repulsion/dispersion, and polarization interaction. Furthermore, it is largely compatible with existing, standard simulation packages. The fitted parameters are transferable and compatible with the general AMBER force field. This PEff model could correctly reproduces the potential energy surface of halogen bonds at MP2 level. Finally, the prediction of the halogen bond properties of human Cathepsin L (hcatL) has been found to be in excellent qualitative agreement with the cocrystal structures.


force field; halogen bond; human Cathepsin L; polarization; potential energy surface

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