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Cancer Cell Int. 2013 Jun 26;13(1):64. doi: 10.1186/1475-2867-13-64.

Curcumin induces apoptosis in gallbladder carcinoma cell line GBC-SD cells.

Author information

1
Laboratory of General Surgery and Department of General Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, No, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai 200092, China. wukejin_wkj@126.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Gallbladder carcinoma is a malignant tumor with a very low 5-year survival rate because of the difficulty with its early diagnosis and the very poor prognosis of the advanced cancer state. The aims of this study were to determine whether curcumin could induce the apoptosis of a gallbladder carcinoma cell line, GBC-SD, and to clarify its related mechanism.

METHODS:

First, the anti-proliferative activities of curcumin-treated and untreated GBC-SD cells were determined using the MTT and colony formation assays. Then, the early apoptosis of cells was detected by the annexin V/propidium iodide double-staining assay and Hoechst 33342 staining assay. Detection of mitochondrial membrane potential was used to validate the ability of curcumin on inducing apoptosis in GBC-SD cells. Cell cycle changes were detected by flow cytometric analysis. Finally, the expressions of the apoptosis-related proteins or genes caspase-3, PARP, Bcl-2, and Bax were analyzed by western blot and quantitative real time PCR assay. Statistical analyses were performed using the Student's t-test for comparison of the results obtained from cells with or without curcumin treatment.

RESULTS:

The MTT assay revealed that curcumin had induced a dose- and a time-dependent decrease in cell viability. Colony counting indicated that curcumin had induced a dose-dependent decrease in the colony formation ability in GBC-SD cells. Cells treated with curcumin were arrested at the S phase, according to the flow cytometric analysis. A significant induction of both the early and late phases of apoptosis was shown by the annexin V-FITC and PI staining. Morphological changes in apoptotic cells were also found by the Hoechst 33342 staining. After treatment with curcumin fluorescence shifted from red to green as ΔΨm decreased. Furthermore, western blot and quantitative real time PCR assays demonstrated that the curcumin induced apoptosis in GBC-SD cells by regulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and activating the expression of cleaved caspase-3.

CONCLUSIONS:

Taken together, the results indicate that curcumin may be a potential agent for the treatment of gallbladder cancer.

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