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J Sci Food Agric. 2013 Dec;93(15):3792-800. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6277. Epub 2013 Jul 31.

Optimized extraction and characterization of antimicrobial phenolic compounds from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) cultivation and processing waste.

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Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90112, Thailand.



Applications for antimicrobials derived from the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) plant are presently restricted by high production costs. Extraction from cultivation or processing waste streams using a solvent-free approach could lessen to permit commercial applications in food processing and preservation.


Phenolics were extracted from mangosteen bark, leaf and fruit pericarp in methanol and in water using response surface methodology to optimize recovery. Initial examination of antimicrobial effects revealed a lack of antimicrobial activity against fungi and weak activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. In contrast, extracts prepared from bark or fruit pericarp exhibited strong pH-dependent bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects against Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Activity was slightly weaker in aqueous extracts due to lower concentrations of tartaric acid esters and flavonols than in methanolic extracts. Measurement of propidium iodide uptake and ATP leakage indicated that the extracts induced damage to the membrane of Gram-positive bacteria.


Extracts of mangosteen bark and fruit pericarp contain mixtures of phenolic compounds with activity against Gram-positive bacteria, notably Listeria monocytogenes. Extraction of phenolics from mangosteen waste could yield fractions for potential applications in the formulation of low-cost processing aids or sanitizers for the food industry.


Garcinia mangostana; MBC; MIC; antimicrobials; mangosteen

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