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Compr Physiol. 2012 Apr;2(2):1061-92. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c110027.

Chloride transport.

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UNC Kidney Center and the Departments of Medicine and Cell and Molecular Physiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.


Chloride transport along the nephron is one of the key actions of the kidney that regulates extracellular volume and blood pressure. To maintain steady state, the kidney needs to reabsorb the vast majority of the filtered load of chloride. This is accomplished by the integrated function of sequential chloride transport activities along the nephron. The detailed mechanisms of transport in each segment generate unique patterns of interactions between chloride and numerous other individual components that are transported by the kidney. Consequently, chloride transport is inextricably intertwined with that of sodium, potassium, protons, calcium, and water. These interactions not only allow for exquisitely precise regulation but also determine the particular patterns in which the system can fail in disease states.

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