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Nutr Clin Pract. 2013 Aug;28(4):437-47.

Gastroparesis: from concepts to management.

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Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Road, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA.


While the symptoms of gastroparesis are common, an accurate diagnosis is based on a combination of those symptoms with a documented delay in gastric emptying. Typical symptoms include nausea, vomiting, early satiety, postprandial fullness, bloating, and abdominal discomfort. Patients with gastroparesis face many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The most common origins of gastroparesis are idiopathic causes and diabetes mellitus. The increased use of certain medications in medicine today, including opiates and drugs with anticholinergic properties, can alter gastrointestinal functions and mimic symptoms of gastroparesis. Accordingly, alternative explanations for symptoms and altered gastrointestinal function need to be considered. Numerous clinical sequelae, including weight loss and severe protein-calorie malnutrition, may be seen in advanced stages of gastroparesis. This article provides an overview of gut sensorimotor function to help the reader better understand the clinical presentation of patients with dyspepsia and those who may have accompanying delayed gastric emptying that meets criteria for gastroparesis. Techniques available for diagnosing motor dysfunction and the principles of gastroparesis management are reviewed. Nutrition recommendations and a review of pharmacologic agents, nonpharmacologic techniques, and novel treatment modalities are provided.

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