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Cereb Cortex. 2014 Nov;24(11):3059-68. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht163. Epub 2013 Jun 24.

Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids improve brain function and structure in older adults.

Author information

  • 1Department of Neurology, NeuroCure Cluster of Excellence.
  • 2Department of Neurology.
  • 3Department of Neurology, Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin 10117, Germany and.
  • 4Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University of Hannover, Hannover 30167, Germany.
  • 5Department of Neurology, NeuroCure Cluster of Excellence, Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin 10117, Germany and.

Abstract

Higher intake of seafish or oil rich in long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may be beneficial for the aging brain. We tested in a prospective interventional design whether high levels of supplementary LC-n3-FA would improve cognition, and addressed potential mechanisms underlying the effects. Sixty-five healthy subjects (50-75 years, 30 females) successfully completed 26 weeks of either fish oil (2.2 g/day LC-n3-FA) or placebo intake. Before and after the intervention period, cognitive performance, structural neuroimaging, vascular markers, and blood parameters were assayed. We found a significant increase in executive functions after LC-n3-FA compared with placebo (P = 0.023). In parallel, LC-n3-FA exerted beneficial effects on white matter microstructural integrity and gray matter volume in frontal, temporal, parietal, and limbic areas primarily of the left hemisphere, and on carotid intima media thickness and diastolic blood pressure. Improvements in executive functions correlated positively with changes in omega-3-index and peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and negatively with changes in peripheral fasting insulin. This double-blind randomized interventional study provides first-time evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on brain functions in healthy older adults, and elucidates underlying mechanisms. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age.

KEYWORDS:

cognitive aging; diffusion tensor imaging; executive functions; intima media thickness; voxel-based morphometry

PMID:
23796946
DOI:
10.1093/cercor/bht163
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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