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Mol Microbiol. 2013 Aug;89(4):626-48. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12302. Epub 2013 Jul 10.

Spatiotemporal regulation of Rho1 and Cdc42 activity during Candida albicans filamentous growth.

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Université Nice - Sophia Antipolis, Institute of Biology Valrose, Parc Valrose, 06108, Nice Cedex 2, France.


Rho G-proteins are critical for polarized growth, yet little is known about the dynamics of their activation during fungal filamentous growth. We first investigated the roles of Rho1 and Rho2 during Candida albicans filamentous growth. Our results show that Rho1 is required for invasive filamentous growth and that Rho2 is not functionally redundant with Rho1. Using fluorescent reporters, we examined the dynamics of the active form of Rho1 and Cdc42 during initiation and maintenance of hyphal growth. Quantitative analyses indicated that the distribution, but not the level, of these active G-proteins is altered during initial polarization upon germ tube emergence. A comparison of the dynamics of these active G-proteins during budding and hyphal growth indicates that a higher concentration of active Cdc42 was recruited to the germ tube tip than to the bud tip. During hyphal elongation, active Cdc42 remained tightly restricted to the hyphal tip, whereas active Rho1 was broadly associated with the apex and subsequently recruited to the cell division site. Furthermore, our data suggest that phosphoinositide-bis-phosphates are critical to stabilize active Rho1 at the growth site. Together, our results point towards different regulation of Cdc42 and Rho1 activity during initiation and maintenance of filamentous growth.

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