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J Calif Dent Assoc. 2013 May;41(5):329-31, 334-42.

Standard examination and adjunctive techniques for detection of oral premalignant and malignant lesions.

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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Radiology and Medicine, New York University College of Dentistry, USA.


This article outlines how to perform a standard comprehensive extraoral and intraoral examination and the existing commercially available adjunctive techniques for the early detection of oral cancer and premalignant lesions. Visualization-based techniques (e.g., autofluorescence and chemiluminescence), toluidine blue vital staining, cytopathologic tests and high-risk human papillomavirus testing are discussed in detail, including the indications and protocols for use, their advantages and disadvantages and clinical cases.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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