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J Econom. 2013 Jun;174(2):107-126.

Limit Theory for Panel Data Models with Cross Sectional Dependence and Sequential Exogeneity.

Author information

1
Department of Economics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057, Tel.: 202-687-0956, gk232@georgetown.edu.

Abstract

The paper derives a general Central Limit Theorem (CLT) and asymptotic distributions for sample moments related to panel data models with large n. The results allow for the data to be cross sectionally dependent, while at the same time allowing the regressors to be only sequentially rather than strictly exogenous. The setup is sufficiently general to accommodate situations where cross sectional dependence stems from spatial interactions and/or from the presence of common factors. The latter leads to the need for random norming. The limit theorem for sample moments is derived by showing that the moment conditions can be recast such that a martingale difference array central limit theorem can be applied. We prove such a central limit theorem by first extending results for stable convergence in Hall and Hedye (1980) to non-nested martingale arrays relevant for our applications. We illustrate our result by establishing a generalized estimation theory for GMM estimators of a fixed effect panel model without imposing i.i.d. or strict exogeneity conditions. We also discuss a class of Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimators that can be analyzed using our CLT.

KEYWORDS:

Central Limit Theorem; Cross-sectional dependence; GMM; MLE; multinomial choice; panel; social interaction; spatial; spatial martingale difference sequence

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