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J Leukoc Biol. 2013 Sep;94(3):513-20. doi: 10.1189/jlb.0213066. Epub 2013 Jun 21.

Modulation of granulocyte kinetics by GM-CSF/IFN-γ in a human LPS rechallenge model.

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Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands.


Inflammation in response to infection or trauma can lead to CARS, which is characterized by leukocyte dysfunction. In this study, we used a human model system for CARS to study the effect of GM-CSF and IFN-γ treatment on this immunoparalyzed state. Healthy human volunteers were treated with GM-CSF (4 μg/kg), IFN-γ (100 μg), or placebo in between two challenges with Escherichia coli LPS/endotoxin (2 ng/kg). Serial leukocyte blood counts were measured. Neutrophil subsets were discriminated using CD16 and CD62L expression. LPS rechallenge resulted in increased mobilization of mature neutrophils, whereas banded neutrophils decreased. GM-CSF and IFN-γ treatment did not restore these changes. GM-CSF treatment did, however, increase the number of CD16(bright)/CD62L(dim) neutrophils that were previously shown be able to suppress T cell proliferation. IFN-γ treatment decreased neutrophilia seen after LPS rechallenge. Our study shows that LPS rechallenge was associated with changes in the distribution of neutrophil subsets, whereas no additional changes in kinetics of other granulocyte populations were observed. GM-CSF and IFN-γ treatment induced a shift in granulocyte composition toward an anti-inflammatory direction by increasing CD16(bright)/CD62L(dim) cells or decreasing neutrophil counts, respectively.


endotoxemia; endotoxin tolerance; eosinophil; myeloid-derived suppressor cells; neutrophil

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