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Clin Transl Oncol. 2014 Feb;16(2):200-7. doi: 10.1007/s12094-013-1063-8. Epub 2013 Jun 21.

PKM2 and ACVR 1C are prognostic markers for poor prognosis of gallbladder cancer.

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Department of Surgery, Central South University, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Erratum in

  • Clin Transl Oncol. 2014 Feb;16(2):224.



To identify biological markers related to the progression and prognosis of GBC.


The expressions of pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 (PKM2) and activin A receptor type IC (ACVR 1C) in 46 squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinomas (SC/ASC) and 80 adenocarcinomas (AC) were examined using immunohistochemistry.


Positive PKM2 and negative ACVR 1C expressions were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, invasion and TNM stage of SC/ASCs and ACs. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that either elevated PKM2 or loss of ACVR 1C expression significantly correlated with shorter average survival times in both SC/ASC and AC patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that positive PKM2 expression and loss of ACVR 1C expression were poor prognosis biomarkers in both SC/ASC and AC patients.


Our study suggested that PKM2 overexpression is a marker of metastasis, invasion and poor prognosis of GBC. ACVR 1C is a tumor suppressor, and lowered ACVR 1C expression is an important marker for the metastasis, invasion, and prognosis of GBC.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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