Send to

Choose Destination
Carbohydr Res. 1990 May 15;199(1):91-109.

Mechanism of formation of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde from D-fructose an sucrose.

Author information

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu 96822.


The literature contains two alternative hypotheses for the mechanism of dehydration of fructose to 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF), namely (1) a sequence of reactions commencing with and retaining the fructofuranose ring intact, and (2) a succession of reactions proceeding mainly via open-chain intermediates. The existing evidence for hypotheses (1) and (2) is reviewed and found to favor (1). The major products from fructose in water at 250 degrees, (with and without acid catalysis) have been investigated on a time-resolved basis and analysis of the results was found to confirm the first hypothesis. A necessary fructofuranosyl-cation intermediate in this hypothesis is produced directly by the hydrolysis of sucrose, and reacts to produce HMF in high yields.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center