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Syst Appl Microbiol. 2013 Sep;36(6):383-91. doi: 10.1016/j.syapm.2013.04.008. Epub 2013 Jun 19.

Description of Bacillus toyonensis sp. nov., a novel species of the Bacillus cereus group, and pairwise genome comparisons of the species of the group by means of ANI calculations.

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Rubinum SA, Avda de La Llana 123, 08191 Rubí, Catalonia, Spain.


Strain BCT-7112(T) was isolated in 1966 in Japan from a survey designed to obtain naturally occurring microorganisms as pure cultures in the laboratory for use as probiotics in animal nutrition. This strain, which was primarily identified as Bacillus cereus var toyoi, has been in use for more than 30 years as the active ingredient of the preparation TOYOCERIN(®), an additive for use in animal nutrition (e.g. swine, poultry, cattle, rabbits and aquaculture). Despite the fact that the strain was initially classified as B. cereus, it showed significant genomic differences from the type strains of the B. cereus group that were large enough (ANI values below 92%) to allow it to be considered as a different species within the group. The polyphasic taxonomic study presented here provides sufficient discriminative parameters to classify BCT-7112(T) as a new species for which the name Bacillus toyonensis sp. nov. is proposed, with BCT-7112(T) (=CECT 876(T); =NCIMB 14858(T)) being designated as the type strain. In addition, a pairwise comparison between the available genomes of the whole B. cereus group by means of average nucleotide identity (ANI) calculations indicated that besides the eight classified species (including B. toyonensis), additional genomospecies could be detected, and most of them also had ANI values below 94%. ANI values were on the borderline of a species definition only in the cases of representatives of B. cereus versus B. thuringiensis, and B. mycoides and B. weihenstephanensis.


ANI; Bacillus cereus group; Genome comparisons; Polyphasic taxonomy; Probiotic

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