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Cell. 2013 Jun 20;153(7):1494-509. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.05.026.

PI(4,5)P(2)-dependent and Ca(2+)-regulated ER-PM interactions mediated by the extended synaptotagmins.

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Department of Cell Biology, Program in Cellular Neuroscience, Neurodegeneration, and Repair, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.


Most available information on endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) contacts in cells of higher eukaryotes concerns proteins implicated in the regulation of Ca(2+) entry. However, growing evidence suggests that such contacts play more general roles in cell physiology, pointing to the existence of additionally ubiquitously expressed ER-PM tethers. Here, we show that the three extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts) are ER proteins that participate in such tethering function via C2 domain-dependent interactions with the PM that require PI(4,5)P2 in the case of E-Syt2 and E-Syt3 and also elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) in the case of E-Syt1. As they form heteromeric complexes, the E-Syts confer cytosolic Ca(2+) regulation to ER-PM contact formation. E-Syts-dependent contacts, however, are not required for store-operated Ca(2+) entry. Thus, the ER-PM tethering function of the E-Syts (tricalbins in yeast) mediates the formation of ER-PM contacts sites, which are functionally distinct from those mediated by STIM1 and Orai1.

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