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Am J Prev Med. 2013 Jul;45(1):75-82. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2013.04.001.

Sociodemographic characteristics and beverage intake of children who drink tap water.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Columbia Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York; Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies, Columbia Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York. Electronic address: PatelA@peds.ucsf.edu.
2
Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies, Columbia Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York.
3
Department of Health Policy and Management, Columbia Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York.
4
Department of Pediatrics, Columbia Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York; Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies, Columbia Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York; Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Tap water provides a calorie-free, no-cost, environmentally friendly beverage option, yet only some youth drink it.

PURPOSE:

To examine sociodemographic characteristics, weight status, and beverage intake of those aged 1-19 years who drink tap water.

METHODS:

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2005-2010) were used to examine factors associated with tap water consumption. A comparison was made of beverage intake among tap water consumers and nonconsumers, by age, race/ethnicity, and income.

RESULTS:

Tap water consumption was more prevalent among school-aged children (OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.47, 2.33, for those aged 6-11 years; OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.32, 2.59, for those aged 12-19 years) as compared to those aged 1-2 years. Tap water intake was less prevalent among girls/women (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.64, 0.89); Mexican Americans (OR=0.32, 95% CI=0.23, 0.45); non-Hispanic blacks (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.34, 0.67); and others (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.36, 0.68) as compared to whites; Spanish speakers (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.55, 0.95); and among referents with a lower than Grade-9 education (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.31, 0.88); Grade 9-11 education (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.32, 0.77); and high school/General Educational Development test completion (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.33, 0.76), as compared to college graduates. Tap water consumers drank more fluid (52.5 vs 48.0 ounces, p<0.01); more plain water (20.1 vs 15.2 ounces, p<0.01); and less juice (3.6 vs 5.2 ounces, p<0.01) than nonconsumers.

CONCLUSIONS:

One in six children/adolescents does not drink tap water, and this finding is more pronounced among minorities. Sociodemographic disparities in tap water consumption may contribute to disparities in health outcomes. Improvements in drinking water infrastructure and culturally relevant promotion may help to address these issues.

PMID:
23790991
PMCID:
PMC4452285
DOI:
10.1016/j.amepre.2013.04.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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