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Food Chem. 2013 Nov 15;141(2):1378-82. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.04.025. Epub 2013 Apr 18.

Changes of antioxidant activity and formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in honey during thermal and microwave processing.

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Department of Carbohydrates Technology, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Poland.


The paper presents the results of microwave irradiation and conventional heating of honey. These two kinds of thermal treatment result in the formation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF), and changes in the antioxidant potential of honeys, which were studied as well. Four types of honey (honeydew, lime, acacia, buckwheat) were analyzed. Honey samples were subjected to conventional heating in a water bath (WB) at 90°C up to 60min or to the action of a microwave field (MW) with constant power of 1.26W/g of the sample up to 6min. Changes in the antioxidant capacity of honeys were measured as a percentage of free radical (ABTS(+)and DPPH) scavenging ability. Changes in the total polyphenols content (TPC) (equivalents of gallic acid mg/100g of honey) were also determined. Formation of HMF in honey treated with a microwave field was faster in comparison with the conventional process. Changes in the antioxidant properties of honey subjected to thermal or microwave processing might have been botanical origin dependent.

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