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Fertil Steril. 2013 Sep;100(3):681-5. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.05.022. Epub 2013 Jun 21.

Increased risk of cancer among azoospermic men.

Author information

1
Departments of Urology and Obstetrics/Gynecology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5118, USA. eisenberg@stanford.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether men with azoospermia are at an elevated risk of developing cancer in the years following an infertility evaluation.

DESIGN:

Cohort study.

SETTING:

United States andrology clinic.

PATIENT(S):

A total of 2,238 men with complete records were evaluated for infertility at a single andrology clinic in Texas from 1989 to 2009.

INTERVENTION(S):

None.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

Cancer incidence was determined by linkage to the Texas Cancer Registry.

RESULT(S):

In all, 451 men had azoospermia, and 1,787 were not azoospermic, with a mean age at infertility evaluation of 35.7 years. Compared with the general population, infertile men had a higher risk of cancer, with 29 cases observed compared with 16.7 expected (standardized incidence rate [SIR] 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.5). When stratifying by azoospermia status, azoospermic men had an elevated risk of cancer (SIR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.4). Infertile men without azoospermia had a trend toward a higher rate of cancer (SIR 1.4, 95% CI 0.9-2.2). The Cox regression model revealed that azoospermic men had 2.2-fold higher cancer risk compared with nonazoospermic men (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.8).

CONCLUSION(S):

Men with azoospermia have an increased risk of subsequently developing cancer, suggesting a possible common etiology between azoospermia and cancer development. Additional follow-up of azoospermic men after reproductive efforts end may be warranted.

KEYWORDS:

Azoospermia; male infertility; neoplasms

PMID:
23790640
PMCID:
PMC3759541
DOI:
10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.05.022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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