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J Cell Sci. 2013 Sep 1;126(Pt 17):4037-47. doi: 10.1242/jcs.131003. Epub 2013 Jun 20.

Resolvin D1 stimulates efferocytosis through p50/p50-mediated suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α expression.

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Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.


Phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils, termed efferocytosis, is essential for the resolution of inflammation as it prevents the tissues surrounding the inflamed site from being exposed to the toxic contents of lytic cells. Resolvin D1 (RvD1), endogenously generated from docosahexaenoic acid during resolution of inflammation, is known to stimulate efferocytosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying RvD1-mediated enhancement of efferocytosis remains largely unresolved. In the present study, murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exhibited markedly reduced efferocytic activity, but this was restored by co-incubation with RvD1. RvD1-induced restoration of the efferocytic activity appears to be mediated by downregulation of LPS-induced TNF-α expression. The inhibitory effect of RvD1 on LPS-induced TNF-α expression was associated with enhanced nuclear localization of p50/p50 homodimer and concomitant reduction of p65/p50 heterodimer accumulation in the nucleus. RvD1 triggered phosphorylation and proteasomal degradation of nuclear factor κB1 (NF-κB1) p105 to generate p50, which was subsequently translocated to the nucleus as a p50/p50 homodimer. Knockdown of NF-κB p50 abolished the ability of RvD1 to suppress TNF-α expression and also to restore efferocytosis, suggesting that the replacement of p65/p50 with p50/p50 homodimer in the nucleus is crucial for RvD1-mediated stimulation of efferocytosis. In a murine peritonitis model, intraperitoneal administration of RvD1 abolished the zymosan-A-induced TNF-α production, thereby stimulating efferocytosis. Taken together, these findings indicate that RvD1 expedites resolution of inflammation through induction of efferocytosis by p50/p50-homodimer-mediated repression of TNF-α production.


NF-κB; Resolvin D1; TNF-α; efferocytosis

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