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Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013 Nov-Dec;27(9):889-99. doi: 10.1177/1545968313491003. Epub 2013 Jun 18.

Beneficial effects of minocycline and botulinum toxin-induced constraint physical therapy following experimental traumatic brain injury.

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1San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA.



Effective recovery from functional impairments caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) requires appropriate rehabilitation therapy. Multiple pathways are involved in secondary injury and recovery suggesting a role for multimodal approaches.


Here, we examined the efficacy of the anti-inflammatory agent minocycline and botulinum toxin (botox)-induced limb constraint with structured physical therapy, delivered alone or in combination, after a severe TBI produced by a controlled cortical impact in rats.


Minocycline was administered at 25 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks beginning 1 day after TBI or sham surgery. For constraint/physical therapy, botox-type A was injected into the nonaffected forearm muscle 1 day after injury and 2 weeks of physical therapy commenced at 5 days after injury. Functional evaluations were conducted 8 weeks after injury.


Minocycline, either as a monotherapy or as combination treatment with botox/physical therapy significantly reduced impairments of spatial learning and memory in the water maze test, whereas botox/physical therapy reduced forelimb motor asymmetry and improved manual dexterity in the cylinder and vermicelli handling tests, A synergistic effect between the 2 treatments was observed when rats performed tasks requiring dexterity. Inflammation was attenuated in the peri-contusion cortex and hippocampus in all TBI groups receiving mono or combination therapies, though there was no significant difference in lesion size among groups.


These data provide a rationale for incorporating anti-inflammatory treatment during rehabilitation therapy.


botox; constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT); controlled cortical impact; glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP); microglia; rehabilitation

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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