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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Sep;57(9):4097-104. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00120-13. Epub 2013 Jun 17.

WHO group 5 drugs and difficult multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a systematic review with cohort analysis and meta-analysis.

Author information

1
Tuberculosis and Chest Service, Department of Heath, Hong Kong SAR, China. kc_chang@dh.gov.hk

Abstract

It is often necessary to include WHO group 5 drugs in the treatment of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) and fluoroquinolone-resistant multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). As clinical evidence about the use of group 5 drugs is scarce, we conducted a systematic review using published individual patient data. We searched PubMed and OvidSP through 7 April 2013 for publications in English to assemble a cohort with fluoroquinolone-resistant MDR-TB treated with group 5 drugs. Favorable outcome was defined as sputum culture conversion, cure, or treatment completion in the absence of death, default, treatment failure, or relapse. A cohort of 194 patients was assembled from 20 articles involving 12 geographical regions. In descending order of frequency, linezolid was used in treatment of 162 (84%) patients, macrolides in 84 (43%), clofazimine in 65 (34%), amoxicillin with clavulanate in 56 (29%), thioridazine in 18 (9%), carbapenem in 16 (8%), and high-dose isoniazid in 16 (8%). Cohort analysis with robust Poisson regression models and random-effects meta-analysis similarly suggested that linezolid use significantly increased the probability (95% confidence interval) of favorable outcome by 57% (10% to 124%) and 55% (10% to 121%), respectively. Defining significant associations by risk ratios ≥ 1.2 or ≤ 0.9, neither cohort analysis nor meta-analysis demonstrated any significant add-on benefit from the use of other group 5 drugs with respect to outcome for patients treated with linezolid, although selection bias might have led to underestimation of their effects. Our findings substantiated the use of linezolid in the treatment of XDR-TB or fluoroquinolone-resistant MDR-TB and call for further studies to evaluate the roles of other group 5 drugs.

PMID:
23774431
PMCID:
PMC3754286
DOI:
10.1128/AAC.00120-13
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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