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Addict Behav. 2013 Oct;38(10):2492-9. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.04.008. Epub 2013 May 14.

Craving effect of smoking cues in smoking and antismoking stimuli in light smokers.

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Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at El Paso, TX 79968, United States.


Cue-reactivity models may be able to inform light and intermittent smoking patterns not yet explained by withdrawal models. For instance, smoking cues in smoking and antismoking advertisements may elicit cravings in smokers at equal rates, which may promote smoking maintenance. Moreover, smoking has been associated with impulsivity, but has not been explored in light and intermittent smokers (LITS). Aims of this study included the assessment of the impact of smoking and antismoking advertisements on post-exposure cravings in LITS and assessment of impulsivity as a moderator between cue exposure and cravings. Data from 155 LITS were analyzed. Participants were exposed to one of three stimuli conditions (i.e., smoking, antismoking, and neutral) and completed measures of demographics, tobacco use and history, impulsivity, and cravings. Univariate analysis demonstrated that smoking stimuli produced higher cravings relative to antismoking and neutral stimuli, whereas no differences between antismoking and neutral stimuli were observed. Impulsivity did not moderate the relationship between stimuli condition and cravings. Implications stemming from these findings include the further regulation of smoking advertisements and future exploration of smoking and smoking cessation in the context of cue-reactivity.


Antismoking advertisement; Cue-reactivity; Impulsivity; Intermittent smokers; Light smokers; Smoking cues

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