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J Pediatr. 2013 Jul;163(1 Suppl):S50-S59.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.03.031.

Cost-effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in low- and middle-income countries: regional analysis and assessment of major determinants.

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Department of Health Services Research and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine London, United Kingdom.



To estimate the cost-effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine in low- and middle-income countries and identify the model variables, which are most important for the result.


A static decision tree model was developed to predict incremental costs and health impacts. Estimates were generated for 4 country groups: countries eligible for funding by the GAVI Alliance in Africa and Asia, lower middle-income countries, and upper middle-income countries. Values, including disease incidence, case fatality rates, and treatment costs, were based on international country estimates and the scientific literature.


From the societal perspective, it is estimated that the probability of Hib conjugate vaccine cost saving is 34%-53% in Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization eligible African and Asian countries, respectively. In middle-income countries, costs per discounted disability adjusted life year averted are between US$37 and US$733. Variation in vaccine prices and risks of meningitis sequelae and mortality explain most of the difference in results. For all country groups, disease incidence cause the largest part of the uncertainty in the result.


Hib conjugate vaccine is cost saving or highly cost-effective in low- and middle-income settings. This conclusion is especially influenced by the recent decline in Hib conjugate vaccine prices and new data revealing the high costs of lost productivity associated with meningitis sequelae.

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